Vermicompost (bio humus) is an organic matter produced by worms and other microorganisms during a mesophilic process. The temperature of the processed substratum ranges from 10°C to 32°C.
In other words, vermicompost is manure composted by worms and containing organic matter. The end product is fully stable organic fertilizer with high content of humus. The quantity of humus is calculated by multiplying the amount of organic carbon (i.e., 15-30 % in vermicompost) by a coefficient (mean = 1.724).
Vermicompost contains a number of biologically active microorganisms and ferments and a variety of nutrients that can be easily taken up by plants. It also features high available water content. Vermicompost also has plant hormones and humic substances that regulate plant growth.
In comparison to mineral fertilizers, when vermicompost is used to fertilize plants, it results in preserved soil fertility (prevention of nutrient-depleted soil) and decrease of nitrates in fruit and vegetables by 7-10 times. Sufficient content of microelements is one of the many indicators showing the level of soil productivity. Plants require seven vitally important microelements: boron, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, cobalt and molybdenum. All of these can be found in vermicompost. Differently from the usual compost, vermicompost has antibacterial and antifungal peptides as well as other pest repelling substances. The acidity of vermicompost is close to neutral, i.e. pH 6.5 – 7.2.
Compared to manure, vermicompost has a hundred times more bacteria which restore soil health. When mixed with soil, it also prevents the propagation of the carriers of various plant diseases. Vermicompost contains a number of auxins, heteroauxins and other biologically active substances improving the replanting process, accelerating germination and boosting plant resistance to diseases.